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SYSTEM 
TARGET PRACTICE. 

\vif] v \rmj:d avith the musket, rifle-musket, rifle, 



»i> ^ ^ \ i» r>T X' I ' 



I'UEPARED PRINCIPALLY FROM THE FRENCH, 

By HEXRY HETir, 

CAPTAIX TENTH REG'T. V. 8. INPAXTRT. 




ORDER OF THE WAR DEPARTraXT 



PIIL.ADELPIIIA: 
HENRY r VREY BAIRD. 

1858. 



SYSTEM 



TARGET PRACTICE, 



For tee Use oe Trooes 

WHEN ARMED WITH THE MUSKET, raFLE-MUSKET, TwIFLE, 
OR CARBINE. 



PREPARED PRINCIPALLY FROM THE FRENCU, 

By IIEXRY IIETH, 

CAPTAIN TENTH REC'T. U. S. INFANTRY. 




rUBLISHEB BY ORDER OF THE WAR DEPARTMENT. 

PHILADELPHIA: 
HENRY CAREY BAIRD. 

1858. 



M o^ 



War Department, 
Washington, March 1, 1858. 

The system of Target Practice, prepared, under direction 
of the War Department, by Captain Henry Heth, lOth 
Infantry, having been approved, is adopted for the instruction 
of troops when armed with the Musket, Eifle Musket, Rifle, 

or Carbine. 

JOHN B. FLOYD, 
Secretary of War, 



Adjutaxt-Gexeral's Office, 

"Washixgtox, October 14, 1857. 
Sir:— 

The Board of Officers iustituted by "Special Orders'' No. 
118, of August 12, 1857, from the War Department, and 
of which you were a member, having adjourned without day, 
the Secretary of War directs that you now proceed to draw up 
a "System of Target Practice with Small Arms,'* this being the 
special service upon which it is designed to employ you, under 
the order of the Department dated May 25, 1857. 

I transmit herewith, fur your use in the execution of the 
duty indicated, the reports furnished by officers of the army 
in answer to the circular issued by the General-in-chief, 
March 15, 185G, respecting practice with small arms. 
I am, sir, very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

S. Cooper, 
To Captain Henry IIetii, Adjutmit' General, 

lUth Infantry, Wiishington, D. C. 



PREFACE. 



The following System of Target Practice is chiefly a 
translation from the French ^^Instruction provisoire sur k 
Tir, k Tusage des bataillons de Chasseurs a Pied.'' Indeed, 
the French system would have been recommended, with but 
little or no change, had we in our service schools of instruc- 
tion similar to theirs. 

The undersigned does not claim the credit of presenting to 
the army any thing new, but only a digest of what has already 
been practised, with great success, by both the English and 
French. 

n. begs leave to express his indebtedness to Brevet-Major 
T. Williams, Captain 4th Artillery, and Brevet-Major Fitz- 
John Porter, Captain Adjutant-Generars Department, for the 
assistance received from their reports on the same subject, 
and also to First Lieut. Julien McAllister, Ordnance De- 
partment, for valuable aid and assistance received from him. 

HENRY IIETII, 
Captain Ttnth Infantry. 



CONTENTS. 



TARGET PRACTICE. 

FIRST LESSON. 
Exercise Preparatory to Firing. 

PAGE 

Art. I. Aiming 12 

II. Position of a Skirmisher aiming, standing 15 

III. Position of a Soldier kneeling and aiming 19 

IV. Keeping the Piece steady when pulling the Trigger 20 

V. Simulated Firing with Caps 22 

VI. Simulated Firing with Blank Cartridges 22 

VII. Estimating Distances 23 

SECOND LESSON. 

Firing with Ball Cartridges at different Distances, and 

Formation of Classes. 

THIRD LESSON. 
Firing as Skirmishers. 

FOURTH LESSON. 
Firing by File, by Company or Rank, and by Platoon. 

LIST OF FORMS. 

Form I. Record of Company firing. Classes, &c 44 

II. Record of Company firing as Skirmishers 48 

III. Record of Company firing by File, by Company or 

Rank, and by Platoon 48 

7 



CONTENTS. 



LIST OF PLATES. 

PAGE 

Plate L Man aiming from a Sand-Bag Rest, in Quarters 13 

II. Squads aiming from a Tripod Rest, on the Drill-Ground 14 

III. Men estimating Distances 23 

IV. Wrought-Iron Frame for Target 37 

V. Wooden Target 38 

VI. The Manner in which the Stadia is worn 39 

VIL The Stadia 42 

VIII. Army Target Prize 41 



S^arjoct |ractlcc. 



The inaccuracy of the soldiers of our army in firing has 
been a matter of surprise and regret to many officers. This 
has been especially remarked upon since the introduction of 
the expanding ball into our service. 

When we reflect that many of the rank and file composing 
our army have never fired a gun previous to their enlistment, 
indeed, that some have never had a gun in their hands, it 
would be truly surprising were such men good shots. 

The slow progress in attaining any thing like precision in 
firing is believed attributable, in a great measure, to ignorance 
of those principles which must govern all good marksmen 
when firing, the chief of which is a knowledge of aiming the 
piece correctly. 

Persons accustomed to the use of fire-arms from their 
youth find no difficulty in aiming a gun correctly at an ob- 
ject. Not so, however, with the man who has never handled 
a gun. As simple as this appears, some men never can 
acquire it. 

It will be found very generally to be a fact, that a soldier 
who habitually fires inaccurately has no idea of the principles 
which should govern him in aiming his piece. 

An officer standing in the rear, or in front, of a man when 
aiming cannot detect inaccuracies of aim ; but, if the soldier 
is made to place his gun on a suitable rest, and aim it at an 
object, the officer will immediately detect all errors, which 
having been pointed out, the soldier receives a useful lesson in 



10 TARGET PRACTICE. 



aiming his piece^ wliicli it will be easy for him to carry out 
when aiming from a prescribed position. 

In order that fire-arms in the hands of soldiers may pro- 
duce their full effect, it is necessary, 

1st. That the soldier should have sufficient knowledge of 
the parts of his piece to enable him to take it apart and put 
it together again for the purpose of keeping it in order. 

2d. That the soldier should know how to load his gun pro- 
perly.* The School of the Soldier contains all that is necessary 
on this subject. 

3d. That the rules for firing his piece should be known ; 
that is to say, that he knows the manner of regulating his 
aim according to the distance of the object to be hit. 

4th. That he should be practised in estimating distances 
within the range of his piece. 

5th. That he should be able to take a position which 
enables him. 

To aim with ease ; 

To keep the body steady, without constraint; 

Not to incline the sights to the right or left; 

To support the recoil. 

6th. When pressing on the trigger to discharge the piece, 
not to derange his aim. 

The above comprises all that is necessary for the soldier to 
know, and put in practice, in order that he may obtain the 
maximum efi'ect of his arm. 

By examining the details of instruction as given above, it 
will be seen that, in order that a soldier may be made familiar 
with them, it is not necessary to fire in reality. 

The soldier should acquire the above by degrees. If the 
soldier's attention be at first confined to aiming his piece, 

'^ An officer, en route to New Mexico with some two hundred recruits, 
reported that, having had occasion to examine the pieces of the men, he 
found at least one hundred pieces loaded with the ball-end of the cartridge 
inserted first. 



TARGET PRACTICE. 11 



he will more readily acquire this than if he were required 
to aim, and to take a prescribed position at the same time. 
Having acquired a knowledge of the principles of aiming his 
piece, and then a prescribed position, he will readily acquire 
the habit of aiming correctly from this position. 

He should now learn the proper manner of pulling the 
trigger, and, when putting this in practice, to keep his piece 
steady. 

The soldier will next be taught to support the recoil, and 
become accustomed to the report of his piece, by first using 
caps, and then blank cartridges. 

Such appears to be the natural order of instruction to 
overcome the difficulties attending the proper use of his arm 
when firing. It is asserted, by the English and French, that 
soldiers, by the above course of instruction, have been made 
good shots without having fired a single ball. 

In the spring of 185G, a company in our service, drilled in a 
similar manner, improved three hundred per cent, in accuracy 
of fire in six weeks^ time. 

The necessity of soldiers being able to estimate distances 
with some degree of accuracy is very evident. Without 
such knowledge, no accuracy of fire could be obtained when 
deployed as skirmishers; as the soldier is then compelled to 
rely upon his own judgment. 

If to the above we join sufficient theoretical instruction 
strictly necessary to enable the soldier to aim his piece cor- 
rectly, according to the distance of the object to be hit, we 
will certainly obtain, when firing, results far superior to those 
which would be obtained by passing immediately from the 
School of the Soldier to firing at a target. The instruction 
would not be complete if a soldier were only made to fire from 
the position which he would naturally take when standing, 
and not in ranks ; or, in other words, when firing as a skir- 
misher, standing. Instruction in firing by file, by company, 
or rank, and by platoon, is necessary to complete the course. 



12 TARGET PRACTICE. 



The following practice will be repeated annually. The 
practice should commence as soon after January as possible. 

At many of our Western posts game is abundant. .Com- 
manding officers are recommended to encourage the men to 
hunt; and for this purpose they are authorized to issue a small 
quantity of ammunition. 



EXERCISE PREPARATORY TO FIRING. 

In the exercises which constitute this lesson, the company 
will be divided into as many squads as there are instructors 
available. When the exercise is conducted on the drill- 
ground, the squads will be formed in one rank, with an 
interval of one pace between the files, and equipped as for 
drill. The bayonet, as a general rule, will be in the scabbard, 
unless otherwise directed. 

ARTICLE I. 

AIMING. 

Instruction in aiming will be given at first in the quarters, 
if practicable. A bag, partially filled with sand or earth, is 
placed on a bench, the bench on a table : by striking the bag 
with the back of the hand, an indentation will be formed in 
which the piece can be rested. The piece is now placed on 
the bag, and aimed by the instructor on some object, such as 
a wafer on the wall, being careful that the sights incline 
neither to the right or left. He now points out to his squad 
the two points which determine the line of sight; that is, 
the top of the front or muzzle-sight, and the middle of the 



TARGET PRACTICE. 13 



notch of the hausse or breech-sight. The instructor explains 
that aiming consists in bringing these two points^ and the 
object aimed at, in the same right line. 

Each man, in turn, placing himself behind the butt of the 
piece, without touching it, closing the left eye, looks through 
the middle of the notch of the breech-sight, over the top of 
the front sight, and on the centre of the wafer upon which 
the line of sight was previously directed, and satisfies himself 
that these three points are in the same right line, (see Plate 1.) 
The instructor will now derange the gun, and then call up each 
soldier in turn, who will aim the piece at the point indicated: 
he will criticize the aiming, pointing out to each of them 
their error or errors, if any are found, by making them see 
that the object aimed at is not in the line of sight, but that 
this line passes to the right, left, above, or below, as the case 
may be. After having rectified the aiming of each soldier, 
the instructor will be careful to derange the piece. This 
exercise will be repeated ; but, instead of the instructor recti- 
fying errors himself, he will first call up the men of his squad 
in turn, and ask each if the line of sight passes to right, left, 
above, or below the point indicated, or whether the piece in- 
clines to the right or left. When the men have expressed 
their opinions, the instructor will give his own, correctiug 
thus all the errors which have been committed. The in- 
structor will repeat this exercise as often as may be necessary. 
After each drill, the instructor will enter, in a note-book, c:ood 
medium, or bad aiming, opposite each man's name. 

Two drills, of two hours each, devoted to the first part of 
the instruction in aiming, will be sufficient to teach the gene- 
rality of men the principles of aiming a gun with the raised 
sight down. 

In a third drill, the instructor will explain to his squad the 
use of the diff'erent parts of his piece, the rules for firing, the 
object and use of the raised sight, by tracing the following 
figure on a board, table, or floor. Explain that the line of 



14 TARGET PRACTICE. 




fire is the axis of the gun indefinitely produced, that the 
ball describes a curved line during its flight, that the line of 
sight is a right line passing through the middle of the notch 
of the rear sight and the top of front sight, that the point- 
blank is the second intersection of the trajectory, or curve, 
with the line of sight. Assuming the point-blank of a gun, 
with the hausse down, to be 200 yards, he will explain to his 
squad, that to hit a man in the head at 200 yards, aim at his 
head; at 150, at his throat; at 100, at his chest, and so on. 
Thus, with the assistance of a curved line, and a few simple 
remarks adapted to the comprehension of any man of ordinary 
iutelligence, the squad will receive a lesson which many will 
find useful in practice, and but few will forget. The instructor 
will, from time to time during the drill, question the men^ 
and satisfy himself that he is clearly understood. The in- 
structor will also add, that, by the use of the hausse or raised 
sight, ths number of points-blank are increased, and explain 
the reason. 

The fourth, fifth, and sixth drills that follow will take place 
on the drill-ground, and squads will be exercised in aiming { 
any distance between 100 and 1000 yards, or up to that point 
for which the arm is sighted. Each squad is provided with a 
target, a bag partially filled with sand, and a tripod, formed 
of poles about six feet long, tied or fastened near the top. 
The tripod is placed in an upright position, the sand-bag 
on the tripod, and the piece on the sand-bag. Each man 
aims his own gun, (see Plate 2.) When he pronounces 
his piece correctly aimed, the instructor calls up the re- 
mainder of the squad in turn, who examine the piece and 



TAP.GET PRACTICE. 15 

inform the instructor, in a low tone, how. in their opinion, the 
gan is sighted. The instructor notes down their answers in his 
note-book. He then examines the piece himself, pronounces 
how the gun is aimed, calls up those who answered incorrectly, 
and, having satisfied them of their errors, requires the man 
who aimed the piece to correct his mistake. At the end of 
the drill the instructor will note good, medium, or bad aiming 
opposite each man's name. Should the captain of the com- 
pany require it, the note-books used by the instructors during 
drill will be handed to him after drill. Should it be desirable 
to economize targets, one target will answer for the different 
squads of the same company during this part of the drill: in 
that case the tripods will be placed as near together as practi- 
cable. Soldiers who have previously been thoroughly in- 
structed in this part of the exercise, and show a knowledge 
of the first four driUs, may be excused from the last two. 

ARTICLE II. 

POSITION OF A SKIRMISHER AIMING STANDING. 

When the men can aim correctly from a rest, they will be 
instructed in the above position. 

Si|uads under arms wiH be formed in a single rank, with 
an interval of -one pace between the files. 

The instructor, facing the s^juaJ, wiU give the details of the 
position, executing the same himself as he describes them. 

AIMING WITH SIGHT DOWN, (WHEN RIELED MUSKET IS USED.) 
ONE TIME AND THREE MOTIONS. 

First Motion. — .\s first motion of ^^ charge bayonet,'^ 
Scott's Tactics, vol. i. paragraph 1S7, except that the right 
foot is carried fifteen inches to rear of left heel. 

Second Motion. — Bring down the piece with the right 
hand to the right side, the barrel uppermost ; seizing it with 



16 TARGET PRACTICE. 



the left hand in rear of the hausse or breech-sight, the stock 
resting in the palm of this hand, the thumb extended along 
the stock, the left elbow close to the body, the muzzle as high 
as the eye. Cock the piece with the thumb of the right 
hand, the fingers supported against the guard and the small 
of the stock ; seize the piece at the small of the stock with 
the right hand. 

Third Motion. — Turn in slightly the left toe, raise the piece 
with both hands ; place the butt firmly against the shoulder, 
the body erect, the left elbow close to the body; shut the 
right eye, raise the right shoulder in order to bring the sight 
to the height of the right eye, the elbow raised nearly to the 
height of the shoulder; aim, keeping the line of sight hori- 
zontal and in the vertical plane of fire, inclining as little as 
possible the head to the right, the thumb of the right hand 
over the small of the stock, the last joint of the first finger 
of the right hand in front of but not touching the trigger, 
the remaining fingers under^ and grasping the smalLof the 
stock. 

AIMING WITH SIGHT DOWN, (WHEN RIFLE IS USED.) 
ONE TIME AND THREE MOTIONS. 

First Motion.— Raise the piece with the right hand ; make 
a half-face to the right on the left heel ; place the hollow of 
the right foot opposite to, and fifteen inches from, left heel ; 
the feet square : seize the piece at the same time with the 
left hand in rear of the hausse or breech-sight, the thumb 
extending along the stock. 

Second Motion. — Bring down the piece with both hands; 
the barrel uppermost, the left elbow close to the body, the 
muzzle as high as the eye. Cock the piece with the thumb 
of the right hand, the fingers supported against the guard and 
the small of the stock. Seize the piece at the small of the 
stock with the right hand. 



TARGET PRACTICE. 17 

Third 3Iotion. — Same as that given for rifled musket. 

The instructor directs each man to take the position, com- 
mencing on the right of the squad : during the instruction lie 
will assist the soldier in supporting his arm by placing his right 
hand under or near the middle baud. After which, the man 
is made to take the position without any assistance. The 
commands given in order to make a soldier take or abandon 
the positions as given above, will be, — 

^^ As a skirmisher, aim/' 

'^ Cease — aiming.'' 

At the first part of the last command, withdraw the finger 
from in front of the trigger; at the command ^'Aiming," 
retake the position of the second motion of ^'Aiming with 
sight down;" half-cock the piece, and come to a shoulder. 
As the instructor proceeds with the squad, he will direct those 
who have been instructed to exercise themselves in taking the 
position, keeping it for an instant, and then abandoning it, 
repeating this as often as they can while the rest are being 
instructed. Men will be cautioned not to cock the piece when 
repeating the instruction. The squad will now be exercised 
in aiming together, keeping them in the position long enough 
to confirm, but not long enough to fiitigue them. This drill 
may be conducted in the quarters. In this case the instructor 
will drill but one man at a time ; the remainder will exercise 
themselves in taking and abandoning the position as he pro- 
ceeds. Two drills will be given to the above exercise. One 
will suffice for soldiers who have been previously instructed. 

During the drill, the soldier will not be required to aim at 
any fixed point, the object being, that he may acquire with 
ease the position of a soldier, '*' aiming as a skirmisher, stand- 
ing/' and the habit of readily catching with his eye the two 
points which determine the line of sight. 

AVhen the men are confirmed in the position described 
above, they will be exercised at aiming at a mark. First, with 
the sii2:ht down : one drill will be ^iven to this exercise. 



18 TARGET PRACTICE. 



Previous to the man's aiming, the instructor will order him to 
direct the line of sight below the point to be aimed at; to 
raise the piece slowly until the line of sight is on the point 
designated, preserving his aim for an instant, keeping the 
body and gun immovable. During the first part of this drill 
the men will be instructed individually. 

The men will now be exercised in aiming, using the hausse 
for ranges for which it is graduated, and the intermediate 
ones 

AIMING WITH SIGHT RAISED, (WHEN RIFLE MUSKET AND 
RIFLE ARE USED.) 

ONE TIME AND FOUR MOTIONS. 

First and Second. — Same as ^^ Aiming with sight down.^' 

Third Motion. — Raise the piece slightly with both hands, 
at the same time depressing the muzzle until the piece is 
horizontal, the left arm and stock against the body : with the 
thumb and first finger of the right hand, regulate the hausse 
for the distance indicated, and seize the piece with the right 
hand at the small of the stock. 

Fourth Motion. — Same as third motion, ^^ Aiming with 
sight down.^' 

Two drills will be given to this exercise : during the first 
drill, the men will be instructed individually, commencing with 
the lower sights, and then causing the hausse to be raised 
gradually. 

The position of a soldier aiming as a skirmisher cannot 
always be taken exactly in the same manner, as it will be 
found necessary to lower the shoulder and arms in proportion 
as the hausse is elevated : without moving the body, or 
inclining the head, the soldier, by lowering the shoulder and 
arms, can take any line of sight from 250 to 1000 yards. 
This will be found a good exercise for the men. In order to 
aim at objects 800, 900, and 1000 yards distant, it is neces- 



TARGET PRACTICE. 19 



sary to press the heel of tlie butt of the piece against the 
shoulder. If men have short necks, the position is con- 
strained, and cannot be taken properly. Instructors perceiving 
this diflSculty will exercise their judgment in recjuiring men 
to take the position above designated when firing at these 
long ranges. 

During the second drill, squads formed on the drill-ground 
will be exercised in aiming together, using the different lines of 
sight for which the bausse is regulated. In this drill the bayonet 
will bo fixed when aiming at distances less than 400 yards. 

AETICLE III. 

POSITION OF A SOLDIER KNEELING AND AIMING AS A 
SKIRMISHER. 

The instruction will 1^ given without times or motions. 
The instructor will command, 

" Take the position of a skirmisher kneeling and aiming," or, 
'^ Cease aiming/' 

The instructor will detail the position of a skirmisher 
kneeling and aiming, as follows. The squad is supposed to be 
at shouldered arms, the files one pace apart. Take the posi- 
tion of present-arms; then carry the right foot to the rear and 
to the right of the left heel, and in a position convenient for 
placing the right knee upon the ground in bending the left 
leg; place the right knee upon the ground, lower the piece, 
the left forearm supported upon the thigh on the same side, 
the right hand on the small of the stock, the butt resting on 
the right thigh, the left hand supporting the piece near the 
lower band. Move the right leg to the left, around the knee 
supported on the ground, until this leg is nearly perpendicular 
to the direction of the left foot, and thus seat himself on the 
right heel. Raise the piece with the right hand and support 
it with the left, holding it near the lower band, the left elbow 
resting on the left thigh near the knee. With the thumb 



20 TARGET PRACTICE. 

and forefinger of the right hand regulate the hausse, if neces- 
sary; cock the piecCj seize it with the right hand at the small 
of the stock, the right shoulder raised or lowered according 
to the position of the target, the right elbow nearly to the 
height of the shoulder; aim at the point indicated, keeping 
the top of the muzzle-sight and the bottom of the notch of 
the hausse in the vertical plane of fire, the thumb of the right 
hand over the small of the stock, the last joint of the first 
finger of the right hand in front of but not touching the 
trigger, the other fingers of this hand grasping the small of 
the stock. The instructor, having taken, and detailed at the 
same time, the position of a skirmisher kneeling and aiming, 
will instruct the men in aiming from this position, in con- 
formity with what has been prescribed in Article II. Two 
drills will be given to this exercise. One will suffice for 
soldiers previously instructed in the drill. 

ARTICLE IV. 

KEEPING THE PIECE STEADY WHEN THE TRIGGER IS 
PULLED. 

It is easy to preserve the aim until the trigger is pressed 
upon in order to discharge the piece; but, when this is done, 
the aim is maintained with difficulty. When pressing on the 
trigger, the line of sight is apt to be deranged : although pro- 
perly directed before touching the trigger, it may not be so 
at the moment the discharge takes place. The report of the 
discharge of his piece should find the soldier still preserving 
his aim. The soldier will attain this if he holds his breath 
from the moment he commences to touch the trigger until the 
gun is discharged; if he does not pull the trigger with a 
jerk, or suddenly, but increases the pressure on the trigger 
by degrees; if he places his finger in such a manner upon the 
trigger as to exercise its full force, pressing not on the 
extremity of the finger, but on the last joint, or as near this 



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22 TARGET PRACTICE. 



The exercise given in this article is considered of great 
importance. It will be repeated for four drills. Two will 
suffice for those men who have been previously instructed. 

ARTICLE V. 

SIMULATED TIRING WITH CAPS. 

This article is the same as the preceding, except that a cap 
will be used, and it will not be necessary to explain to the 
soldier the manner of pulling the trigger. Squads assembled 
in the quarters will be made to aim at a lighted candle, which 
will be placed three feet or more from the muzzle of the gun. 
The line of sight will be brought to bear below the flame; 
then, gradually raising the piece until the line of sight is directly 
on the flame, the cap will be exploded : if the cone and barrel 
of the piece are perfectly clear, and the piece correctly 
sighted, the body kept steady when aiming and at the mo- 
ment the cap explodes, the candle will be extinguished. 
Simulated firing with caps will be executed in two drills. 
Ten caps per man will be exploded at each drill; eight caps 
standing and two kneeling. 

ARTICLE VI. 

SIMULATED FIRING WITH BLANK CARTRIDGES. 

Firing with blank cartridges will be conducted in conformity 
with the principles laid down in the foregoing articles. The 
squad will be formed on the drill-ground as prescribed in 
Article II. The men will fire in succession at a target, placed 
or supposed to be placed at difi'erent distances. The rules 
laid down in the foregoing articles relating to a soldier aiming 
will be strictly followed. This lesson will be executed in two 
drills; ten cartridges will be fired per man at each drill; 
eight standing and two kneeling. 

The object of these drills is to accustom the men to pre- 
serve their aim when firing. 



TARGET PRACTICE. 23 



ARTICLE VII. 

ESTIMATING DISTANCES. 
(See Plate 3.) 
The company assembled fully equipped as for drill will be 
divided into at least three squads, or as many as there are 
company officers present. Each officer is provided with a 
small cord, 25 yards long. The instructor will measure on 
the ground a right line, which will be marked off into distances, 

0, 50, 100, 150, 200, yards; 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 

i i I I i 
marking these distances, as measured, with a stake, stone, 
or line, on the ground. He will now direct each man of his 
squad to pace off the measured distance of 100 yards, caution- 
ing them to be careful and preserve their natural gait, without 
attempting to increase or diminish the length of their step. 
lie will direct the men to count the number of steps they 
take in passing over the distance of 100 yards. This having 
been repeated at least three times by each soldier, who reports 
each time the number of steps taken by him in passing over 
100 yards, the ratio which a yard bears to the step of each 
soldier becomes known. The instructor will inform each sol- 
dier the number of steps it will be necessary for him to take 
to pass over 10 yards. The soldier now knowing the number 
of steps he must take to pass over 10 and 100 yards, it will 
be easy for him to measure any distance with sufficient accu- 
racy for all practical purposes when firing. 

To estimate a distance greater than 100 yards — in steps — the 
soldier, having started from the point of departure, will count 
the number of steps he should take to pass over 100 yards; ex- 
tending as a tally, at the moment of arrival, the thumb of his 
right hand, the other fingers closed : he will recommence then 
his count, extending the first finger of the right hand when 
he has counted the number of steps necessary to make a 



24 TARGET PRACTICE. 



second 100 yards, and so on, until he arrives at a point less than 
100 yards from the point up to which he is to measure. When 
the soldier finds himself less than 100 yards from the object, he 
will count by tens, saying, ^^ Ten yards/^ when he has counted 
the number of steps necessary for him to pass over the distance 
of 10 yards, 20, 30 yards, and so on, until he arrives very near 
the object, when he will increase the length of his step, counting 
each step a yard ; and, by adding these to the tens, he will then 
only have to count as hundreds the number of fingers he has 
raised, to know the whole distance, expressed in yards. 

The instructor will form his squad at one of the extremities 
of the 200 yard line, which has been measured in such a way 
that the right line measured shall be perpendicular to the 
front of the squad. He will order four men to place them- 
selves, the first at the point marked 50 yards, the second at 
the point marked 100 yards, the third at the point marked 
150 yards, and the fourth at the point marked 200 yards. 
The men selected should be as near the same height as prac- 
ticable. The instructor will now direct the attention of the 
squad to the difi*erent parts of the dress, arms, equipment, and 
figure of the men on the line, such as can be easily distin- 
guished and recognised at 50 yards, and such as cannot be 
readily recognised at this distance. He questions each man 
of his squad on these points, not expecting all to answer alike, 
since the eyesight of men will generally difier. 

The instructor will now call the attention of the men to the 
soldier placed at the point 100 yards distant, and cause them 
to make similar observations upon this man as those already 
prescribed for the soldier at 50 yards. The instructor again 
questions the men, and will be careful to point out to them 
the difi'erence that exists between those two distances, as 
illustrated by the difi'erence in the appearance of the same 
objects at these distances. The instructor will make, in suc- 
cession, upon the two men placed at 150 and 200 yards, simi- 
lar observations as prescribed for the men at 50 and 100 yards; 



TARGET PRACTICE. 25 



being very careful to call the attention of each man to the 
difference which exists between the four distances, illustrated 
by the distinctness with which certain objects are seen. The 
instructor will direct the squad to notice that men appear 
smaller the farther they are off, although in reality they are 
nearly the same height. The men stationed at the different 
points will be frequently replaced by others. When the men 
of the squad have made a sufficient number of observations 
upon the four distances above indicated, and when these 
observations are well impressed on their memories, the in- 
structor will cause the squad to estimate intermediate distances 
between 50 and 200 yards. 

In order to do this, the instructor will march his squad to a 
different part of the ground from that on which he measured 
the distances in the first instance, and form it in one rank. 
lie now sends out one man, directing him to halt at a given 
signal. The instant this man steps off, the squad is faced 
about, in order that the men may not count the steps taken. 
When the man proceeds a sufficient distance, he will be halted, 
facing towards the squad. The squad will now be faced to 
the front. The men will estimate the distance which separates 
them from the soldier. The instructor cautions the squad to 
recollect the observations made by them upon the men placed 
at the measured distances. The instructor, placing himself a 
short distance from the squad, calls each man to him in turn, 
directing them to give in their estimates in a low voice. This 
is necessary, in order that no man may be influenced in his 
judgment by the opinion of another. The instructor writes 
in his note-book, opposite each man's name, the distance 
as estimated by him. The instructor will now cause the dis- 
tance to be measured, and, at the same time, stepped off by 
the men. The instructor, having received from each man 
the distance as measured by him, will insert the same, by 
the side of the distance as estimated. The instructor now 
points out to the men the errors, if any were committed, in 

3 



26 TARGET PRACTICE. 



estimating the distance. In order to do this more distinctly, 
he may send a man to the point from which the squad started, 
pointing out all errors by observations on this man. The 
instructor will repeat this exercise as often as in his judgment 
is necessary, taking care each time to choose a different dis- 
tance, but always between the limits above indicated. 

Estimating distances should take place under different 
conditions of the atmosphere, cloudy, foggy, &c. ; and, if the 
locality permits, squads should be drilled on ground the out- 
line of which is diversified by hills, ravines, &c. 

When the instructor judges that the men of his squad — who 
should, if possible, be the same during these exercises — have 
acquired a sufficient accuracy in estimating distances comprised 
between 50 and 200 yards, he will proceed to estimate dis- 
tances comprised between 200 and 400 yards. To accomplish 
this, he will cause to be measured a distance of 400 yards, 
and mark, upon the right line so measured, distances of 

0, 200, 250, 300, 350, and 400 yards; 0, 200, 250, 300, 350, 400. 

i i J 1 I I 

The squads will be formed as explained. The instructor now 
orders five men to place themselves, the 1st at 200, the 2d 250, 
the 3d 300, the 4th 350 and the 5th at 400 yards, facing the 
squad and resting on their arms. He will make upon these 
different distances observations similar to those already made 
upon the lesser distances and for that of 200 yards. This last 
distance should be the object of particular attention and study. 
The instructor will cause distances comprised between 200 and 
400 yards to be estimated as explained for the lesser dis- 
tances. 

When the men have acquired sufficient accuracy in esti- 
mating distances comprised between 200 and 400 yards, they 
will be made to estimate distances comprised between 50 and 
400 yards. 

This having been accomplished, distances will be no longer 
estimated on sinde individuals, but on groups of men. 



TARGET PRACTICE. 27 



Each company, under the command of its captain, will be 
divided into two platoons; commanded by the first, and second 
lieutenants, when not superintending the firing of a class. The 
captain will keep himself with one of the two platoons, having 
an eye to the exercise. The chief of each platoon, having 
halted his platoon in a favorable position indicated by the 
captain, will bring his platoon to an order, and rest. A group, 
composed of a corporal, a drummer or bugler, and two men, 
will proceed immediately in front of the platoon, following a 
line indicated by the chief of platoon, who will point out to 
the corporal two points on this line upon which to direct him- 
self. The corporal, havinir passed over a distance of 200 yards, 
but not exceeding 700, will be at liberty to halt his group. 
He will then place the men one pace apart, in one rank, and, 
facing the platoon, bring them to an order, and rest, and take 
his place on the right of the rank, the centre of which should 
be established on the line. The chief of the platoon will 
DOW estimate the distance himself, and note the same in his 
note-book. He will now call out the nun-commissioned officers, 
receive their estimates, (which should be given in a low tone,) 
note down the same ; and so on with the men. As soon as the 
officer in charge of the platoon commences to take down the 
estimates of the men, a sergeant, assisted by two men carry- 
ing a cord twenty-five yards long, will measure the distance 
which separates the platoon from the group, and note down the 
same. — Should the number of units which remain after having 
noted the hundreds and tens be less or equal to five, they will be 
rejected ; if greater than five, they will be counted as ten. 
The officer having taken down the estimates, and the distance 
separating the platoon from the group having been measured, 
the officer will display a signal, and the sergeant who mea- 
sured the distance will indicate the number of yards, by 
causing the drummer to sound a roll for each hundred, and a 
single tap for tens. The bugler will indicate the same by long 
and short notes. 



TARGET PRACTICE. 



The group, at the discretion of the officer comiDanding 
the platoon, may be made to increase or lessen the distance 
which separates it from the platoon, the corporal keeping the 
group within the limits prescribed, and on the line as indicated 
to him. When he halts the group, he will be careful to esta- 
blish it on the line facing the platoon. 

The sergeant charged with measuring the distance will re- 
tire a few paces from the line after having marked the point 
up to which he last measured. 

He will observe the platoon, and as soon as its chief com- 
mences recording the estimates he will measure the distance 
which separates the group from its first station, taking note of 
this distance, and adding it to the first or subtracting it, as 
the case may be. 

In estimating distances comprised between 700 and 1000 
yards, the number composing a group will be increased to 
eight men, a corporal, and drummer or bugler. The groups 
will be formed sometimes in one and sometimes in two ranks. 

In all other respects the rules laid down for estimating dis- 
tances between 200 and 700 yards will be followed. 

Instruction in estimating distances will be given when it 
does not interfere with other parts of the soldiers^ drill. It 
will, however, always precede ball-practice, and be carried on 
during this practice. When one squad is occupied in firing at 
the target, the remaining squads will be exercised in estimating 
distances. 

Officers, particularly, should be prompt in estimating dis- 
tances correctly, as they are called upon to conduct and regu- 
late the fire in presence of an enemy. 



TARGET PRACTICE. 29 



^«0nd ^ess0it* 



FIRING WITH BALL CARTRIDGES AT DIFFERENT DIS- 
TANCES, FORMATION OF CLASSES, ETC. 

The distances at which the targets are placed will be 150, 
225, 250, 300, 325, 350, 400, 450, 500, 550, GOO, 700, 800, 
900, and 1000 yards. 

These distances will be carefully measured and staked off 
on the ^^ firing-ground.^' 

The surfaces fired at will be, 
at 150 and 225 yards one target G ft. high and 22 in. broad. 



225 and 300 




one 


325, 


350, and 400 




one 


450 a 


ind 500 




one 


550 and GOO 




one 


700 






one 


800 






one 


900 






one 


1000 






one 



44 




GG 




88 




110 




132 




17G 




220 




2G4 





Four rounds will be fired at each of the above distances. 
The company will be divided into three equal classes, non- 
commissioned officers equally distributed. (See Form I.) 

After the company has fired at the several distances 150, 
225, 250, 300, 325, 350, and 400 yards, the classes will be 
rearranged according to merit of firing, — the first class com- 
posed of those men who have hit the target the greatest num- 
ber of times, the second class of those who come next in 
order, and so on with the third, keeping the classes as nearly 
equal as practicable. Non-commissioned officers will not* be 
assigned to classes according to merit, but according to rank, 
a sergeant in each class, the presence of non-commissioned 
officers being necessary with classes when estimating distances, 
&c. When the firing has been executed at the fifteen dis- 

3* 



30 TARGET PRACTICE. 



tanceS; the classes will be again reformed, as prescribed above; 
previous to which no change will be made. 

Men who from unavoidable causes have missed drills will 
be placed in that class to which the number of their shots that 
hit the target entitles them, — which will be determined by a 
simple calculation. 

A list of the company, arranged by classes, will be kept ex- 
posed in the quarters until new lists are formed. The object 
in forming classes is that the officers may know the good 
marksmen in their companies, and to stimulate the pride of 
the men. 

When the company arrives on the ground, the classes will 
be paraded. The first class, formed in one rank, will take 
position ten steps in rear of the point from which the firing 
takes place, the centre of the rank on and perpendicular to 
the plane of fire. 

The remaining classes will be divided into as many squads 
per class as there are intelligent non-commissioned officers 
available, and these squads, superintended by an officer, will 
be exercised, on suitable ground near the firing-ground, in 
estimating distances, or in what is laid down in Article IV. 
When estimating distances greater than 400 yards, the two 
classes may be united, in which case the detachment will be 
commanded by an officer. The officer superintending the 
firing will order his class to load at will, and then bring them 
to a ^^ support arms,'' or ^^ order arms,'' and rest. 

Before a man fires, a roll on the drum, or note on the bugle, 
will be sounded. At this signal the markers will take their 
places. At the command 

" Commence firing," the man on the right will take the 
position in front of the squad that has been pointed out to 
him, and fire, retiring, as soon as he has fired, three paces in 
rear of his first position ; and so on with the rest. When a 
class has fired, it will reload at the commands ^^Load at will," 
^^Load," and thus continue until the four shots have been 



TARGET PRACTICE. 31 



expended. Three shots will be fired standing, the fourth 
kneeling. The firing of the other classes will be conducted 
in the same manner. Officers should retire a short distance 
from the soldier who is about to fire, and be careful not to 
speak to him when in the act of firing. Officers will pay par- 
ticular attention that all the principles are followed which have 
been laid down in the foregoing articles. 

Balls which strike within the black lines will have no 
greater value on the "record-book" than those which strike 
any other part of the target. 

An intelligent non-commissioned officer, assisted by a man, 
will place themselves in a hole dug at the foot and in front 
of the target, protected by a breast work of earth thrown upon 
that side from which the firing takes place. This non-com- 
missioned officer will mark the shots which strike the target. 
He will be provided with a small flag, and a rod about six feet 
long, on one end of which will be nailed a circular disk of 
wood, or other material, six or eight inches in diameter, 
painted on one side white, on the other black. When a ball 
strikes outside the black, he will cover the shot-hole with the 
disk, presenting the black side to the detachment; when inside 
the black, the white side will be presented to view. Firing 
will only be permitted when the flag is down. The marker 
should be provided with a pot of paste, a brush, and patches 
of paper, when the target covered with muslin is used. After 
five shots, the marker will paste patches over the ball-holes, or 
otherwise deface them. When cast-iron targets are used, the 
marker should be provided with black and white paint. 

Should it not be possible to obtain the greatest range laid 
down, the entire number of shots will nevertheless be fired. 
The shots, in that case, will be divided equally between the 
150 yard range and the greatest available range. 

The officer superintending the drill will note opposite each 
man's name his hitSj which, after the drill ends, will be copied 
in the record-book kept for that purpose. (See Form I.) 



32 TARGET PRACTICE. 



When the first class has nearly completed firing its four 
rounds, the drummer will be directed to sound a roll, or the 
bugler the signal ^^ Commence firing/' 

The second class will then be marched to the position occu- 
pied by the first, and execute what has been laid down above 

During the remainder of the drill, the first class will be 
exercised in estimating distances. It will be found to 
economize time, and the record of shots can be better kept, 
by keeping the same non-commissioned officer superintending 
the marking of shots during the entire drill. 



WMrd lesson. 

FIRING AS SKIRMISHERS. 

The company will now be exercised in firing as skirmishers. 
Three drills will be given to this exercise. Ten cartridges 
will be fired per man at each drill. When firing as skir- 
mishers, the men will be permitted to take that position which 
suits them best. The line of skirmishers will fire first ad- 
vancing, then retreating, conforming to the principles laid 
down in the ^^instruction for skirmishers. '^ The targets will 
be six feet high and twenty-two inches wide, placed upon a 
line parallel to the line of skirmishers and six yards apart. 

As many targets will be used as the nature of the ground 
and a due regard to economy will permit. A line will be 
staked ofi* parallel to the line of targets and 350 yards dis- 
tant. The line of skirmishers, formed a suitable distance from 
this line, will advance upon it, and when on the line the 
command will be given, " Commence firing :'' the line of skir- 
mishers will advance and fire five rounds ; the remaining five 
will be fired retreating. 

The firing during the second drill will be executed as laid 
down for the first. The surface fired at will be double ; the 



targets pbeed s z j„:i- p^r:. T^e ±iiz^ will commence 
when the skimii^eis arriTe on a line Oi)0 yards fri— .li 
targets. The number :t' : 7_ :*^ ~!11 not be lunited. Five 
cartridges will be fired i - i five retreating. 

Firing daring the iL: .ence when :Le skir- 

mishers reach a line 8C'" vans :. ! :f targets. Four 

laigets will be naed, placed 12 ; The dimension 

of each target will be 6 feet by b'^ inches. After each drill, 
the distance at which the line of ski: ! _ ed fire, 

the number of men present at the - .her of 

balls that strike the targets, will be entered in the '-rec-ord- 
book." (See Form II. J When the ranges as laid down cannot 
be obtained, they will be approximated to as nearly as possible, 
and the prescribed number of shots fired. 



:Jfourth Wesson. 

FIKIXG BY COMPAXY OR RAXK, AXD BY PLATOOX. 

The exercises in firing will terminate with firing by file, by 
company or rank, according to the tactics used, and by platoon. 
At each drill, six cartridges per man will be fired by file, two 
by rank or company, and two by platoon. The distances at 
which the several firings take place will be SOO, 400, and 500 
yarils. The target used will be 6 feet high and 176 inches 
broad. The vertical and horizontal stripes on this target will 
be 12 inches in width. 

The firings by file, by company or rank, and by platoon, 
will be executed in three drills : at the first, the firing will 
commence at 3<X> yards; the second, at -100; and the third, 
at 500 yards. At each drill, the firing will commence by file, 
then by company or rank, and will end by firing by platoon. 
When firing at ZOO yards, whether by file, by e>>mpaDy or 



34 TARGET PRACTICE. 



rank, or platoon, bayonets will be fixed. After eacb drill, the 
captain will enter in the ^^ record-book^' the number of men 
present at the drill, the number of balls fired, and the num- 
ber that struck the target. (See Form III.) As the position of 
soldiers firing by file, company or rank, and by platoon, is dif- 
ferent from that taken when firing as a skirmisher, it will be 
necessary, before executing the above firings, to habituate the 
men to the positions which they should take by simulated 
firings, such as have been described in Articles Y. and YI. of 
First Lesson. 

The simulated firing will first be by allowing the hammer 
to fall upon the cone. The men will be made to take the posi- 
tions as laid down in the ^^ School of a Soldier" as applicable 
to those difi'erent firings. They will be accustomed to regu- 
late the hausse in ranks, putting in practice as much as 
possible, when firing in ranks, what has been prescribed for 
individual firing. 

During the first part of the first drill, ten caps per man will 
be exploded, — six in file firing, two by company or rank, and 
two by platoon. During the second part of the same drill, 
ten blank cartridges will be fired, — six by file, two by com- 
pany or rank, and two by platoon. The front rank will be 
made frequently to change positions with the rear rank. 
Firing with ball cartridges will then take place, preceding 
each real fire by simulated firings, when the hammer will be 
allowed to fall upon the cone. The proper execution of 
platoon and company firing depends in a great degree upon 
the commands of the officer. If he does not allow a sufficient 
interval between the commands ^^Aim'' and ^^Fire,'' the 
men will not have time to aim. To obey in time the com- 
mand, the trigger will be pulled suddenly. The result will 
be, that much of the efficacy of the fire will be lost, and a 
simultaneous fire, upon which a great deal depends, will not 
be obtained; for experience and reasoning demonstrate the 
fact, every thing else being equal, that platoon-firing is more 



TARGET PRACTICE. 35 



effective iu proportion as it is executed together. When the 
officer leaves a suitable interval between the commands ^^ Aim^' 
and ^^Fire/' the men have time to adjust the piece to the 
shoulder, to place the finger in front of the trigger, and to ex- 
ercise a slight pressure on the trigger when awaiting the com- 
mand ^^Fire/' They are then ready to fire the moment the 
command is given, thus obtaining a simultaneous and eff'ective 
fire. But, if the officer superintending the firing should be 
careful to leave a sufficient interval between the commands 
^^Aim'' and ^^Fire,'' he should no less avoid the opposite 
extreme. If he keeps the men aiming too long, they will 
become fatigued, will lose their aim, and will not be prepared 
to obey the command when given. It is only by commanding, 
and seeing platoon and company firing executed with ball and 
cartridge, and judging of its eff'ect by the number of balls put 
in the target, that officers can appreciate the influence of a 
command properly given, and ac(juire the habit of thus 
giving their commands. 

When firing by file, by company or rank, or by platoon, the 
officers will indicate the distance which separates the company 
from the object to be fired at. Men in ranks are necessarily 
more or less constrained in their movements. Occupied, more- 
over, in loading their pieces, soldiers will not be able to judge 
the distance which separates them from the enemy. 

The most suitable moment to indicate the distance will be 
immediately before the command ^^Aim'' is given. The men 
will then be in a position to regulate the hausse. To direct 
the fire of a platoon upon an enemy, for example, at 400 yards, 
the officer will command, '^ Fire by platoon,'' ^^ Platoon — 
Ready— at 400 yards— Aim— Fire— Load.'' 

The above observations are applicable to firing by company 
or rank. 

When firing by file, the distance will be announced imme- 
diately before the command ^^ Commence firing," and after 
the command ^^ Ready." 



36 TARGET PRACTICE. 



Inaccuracy of fire may arise from very different causes. 

1st. From ignorance of, or failing to apply, the principles 
wliicli govern good marksmen when firing. 

2d. A ball, when fired, may be, and generally is, deflected 
from its course when describing the trajectory. 

The first causes may be obviated in a great degree by 
practical and theoretical instruction. 

The second is attributable to the piece, and exterior in- 
fluences acting upon the ball. Some of the causes cannot be 
modified by the most skilful marksman; while others, to a 
great extent, may be counteracted. It would be unreasonable 
to expect comparative perfection in every gun issued from our 
large manufactories. Our rifle musket is believed to be as 
perfect an arm of its kind as has ever been made. A perfect 
arm can only exist in theory. A soldier always firing the 
same piece will become acquainted with its defects, and will 
be able to make such allowances when firing as experience 
teaches him to be necessary. 

Among the exterior influences which affect the accuracy 
of a gun, the principal one is the wind. If the wind blows 
from the right, the ball will be deflected to the left ) to the 
right, if it blows from the left; raised, if from the rear; 
and lowered, if from the front; raised and to the left, if 
it blows from the rear and right. The deviation produced by 
the wind will be increased in proportion as the distance in- 
creases ; it increases even more rapidly than the distance. 
Experience alone can teach the soldier the allowance he must 
make for the wind. Not only does the wind affect accuracy 
of fire by deflecting the ball from its course, but it prevents a 
person from holding his piece steady. 

The temperature and dampness of the atmosphere influence 
the ball in its flight. It has been remarked that in dry 
weather longer ranges have been obtained than in damp 
weather. 

When firing at an object in motion, allowance must be 



TARGET PRACTICE. 37 



made for tlie motion. For instance, when firing at a horse- 
man galloping in a direction perpendicular to the plane of 
fire, it is necessary that the line of sight should move in pro- 
portion as the horseman moves, and should be directed in 
advance of him in proportion as he is farther off. 

In opening a fire upon an enemy, particular attention should 
be paid to discover where the first balls fired strike. It would 
be better that the balls fall short of, rather than pass over, the 
enemy. In the first case, we stand a chance of a ricochet ball 
taking effect. From which we naturally deduce that a soldier 
should be impressed with the necessity of firing too low rather 
than too hif>;h. 



The difficulty of procuring any specified material for 
targets at many posts precludes the adoption of any particular 
target. 

The surface fired at, at the different distances, will alone be 
fixed by regulation. 

The following suggestions are offered. 

The best targets, and those recommended for permanent 
posts, are of cast iron, — by far the cheapest and most durable. 
The different surfaces required could be obtained by having 
four cast-iron targets of the following dimensions, — one target 
G feet by 22 inches ; one 6 feet by 44 inches ; one 6 feet by 
6G inches; and one 6 feet by 132 inches. 

When cast-iron targets cannot be had, the next best are 
targets formed of wrought-iron frames (see Plate 4) with 
muslin stretched upon them. Four frames of the following 
dimensions, by combination, would enable us to obtain the sur- 
faces required, — one 6 feet by 22 inches ; one 6 feet by 44 
inches; one G feet by 88 inches; one G feet by 110 inches; 
and all the parts could be carried in a wagon-body. 



38 TARGET PRACTICE. 



Bj carefully covering tlie ball-holes with patches of paper 
pasted on, we strengthen and thicken the target; and one of 
these targets will last longer than one would suppose. 

The next best targets are wooden frames composed of four 
pieces, 6 inches wide and 1 inch thick, bolted together; the 
ends of the vertical sides projecting about a foot below, and 
sharpened, the frame covered with muslin and held in posi- 
tion by four guys fastened to the top and attached to pins in 
the ground in front and rear. (See Plate 5.) 

Every target, except the one used in determining the regi- 
mental prizeman, will be marked by a vertical and a horizontal 
stripe, dividing it into four equal parts, and varying in width 
according to the distance, as follows : 

At 150 and 225 yards 4 inches wide. 

" 250 '' 300 " 5 '' " 

'' 325 '' 350 '' 8 '' " 

" 400 450 '' 500 " 12 " '' 
" 550 600 '' 700 " 16 '' '' 
'' 800 900 '' 1000 '' 20 " " 
Targets will be furnished by the quartermaster's depart- 
ment. 



frkes. 



Prizes will be of three kinds, — an army prize, regimental 
prizes, and company prizes. 

The company prize will be awarded by the captain, after 
the annual target-practice has terminated, to that non-com- 
missioned officer, musician, or private, who has hit the target 
the greatest number of times at the various distances pre- 
scribed. 

The company prize will be a brass stadia, worn on the right 
or left breast, according to the arm used, musket or rifle; the 
ball passed through the button-hole, and the hook fastened to 





i fi 


ff 


^ 


<r 


V 


V 




c 





t. 


7- 






/\ 




1 






o 


i\_. 1 







1 


? 


c 




^■^ 



9 




o 








1 

\ 


^ 













\ 




o 









~ 




























o 















^^^^ ; 





. 


o 


bs 




/ 




_^.^-^/' 








i ^--^^ 


y 


' 


N' 


.A-"" 






' W' 


• 


5iH 


' 





TARGET PRACTICE. 



a loop worked four inches from the row of buttons. (See 
Plate 6.) 

Should several men of the company have the same number 
of hits, they will, under the supervision of the captain, fire at 
a target 200 yards distant until the question is decided. 
Should a man, from unavoidable causes, fail to fire from one 
or more of the prescribed distances, and if by firing from 
these distances he might prove the successful competitor, he 
will be permitted to fire under the supervision of the cap- 
tain. 

The regivnental prize will be a silver stadia, with a silver 
chain attached. It will be awarded by the colonel of the 
regiment to that company prizeman who has made the shortest 
Btring; and his name and company will b^ announced in 
regimental orders. To enable colonels to determine the regi- 
mental prizemen, commanding oflScers of posts will be governed 
by the following regulations. The company prizemen, at each 
post, to fire according to the details given below, under the 
direction of the commanding officer, who will f<»rward a record 
of the firing of the best shot of the several (?ompauies of the 
same regiment to regimental headquarters. 

1st. The order in which the men fire will be determined 
by lot. 

2d. The target will be a circular board or boards three feet 
in diameter. The middle of the target will be marked by 
the centre of a black circle eight inches in diameter. The 
rest of the target will be painted white. 

3d. Each man fires ten balls. The distance fired from will 
be 200 yards. 

4th. After each shot, the distance from the centre of the 
ball-hole to the centre of the target will be measured and 
recorded. The ball-hole is then covered by pasting over it a 
small piece of paper. 

5th. Balls which strike by ricochet will be counted as 
having missed the tarsret. 



40 TARGET PRACTICE. 



6th. Each miss counts 20 inches on a man's string. In all 
cases the man whose string is shortest is selected. 

7th. If several competitors obtain equal strings, they will 
fire as many shots as may be necessary to decide the question 
between them. 

8th. The position fired from will be that of a soldier 
'^ firing as a skirmisher standing.^' 

9th. Each man shall load and fire his own gun. The full 
charge of powder in a cartridge will be used. No allowance 
will be made for guns hanging fire. 

The firing, if possible, should be finished in one practice or 
trial. However, should the weather change during the trial, 
and be such that it operates to the disadvantage of those whose 
turn it is to fire last, the commanding officer will suspend the 
trial, to be resumed when the weather permits. 

The circular target should be raised at least three feet from 
the ground. 

The regimental prize will be given to the successful com- 
petitor by the inspector-general, should he be present; in 
his absence, by the senior officer present on parade. 

If two men of a regiment have the same string, the colonel 
will inform the commanding officer of the post or posts at 
which these men are stationed, who will direct an additional 
ten shots to be fired, and forward the record of firing as 
before. 

Prizes will be worn on all full-dress occasions, on orderly 
duty, and when attending the pay-table. 

Regimental and company prizes shall be held by the success- 
ful competitor until the next annual distribution takes place. 
A man having worn a prize for one year may obtain the 
prize a second, or any number of years, provided he is the 
successful competitor. 

As prizes are honorable badges, a soldier may be deprived 
of them by the sentence of a general court-martial. 

Prizes will be furnished by the Ordnance Department. 



Plate Yin 




TARGET PRACTICE. 41 



Requisitions will be made for them by regimental commanders 
and company officers. They will be borne on the Ordnance- 
Return as other property. Soldiers will be charged with their 
loss, or injury, as with other public property. 

The army prize will be a silver medal 22" inches in diameter, 
suspended by a silver chain. 

The chain will be worn around the neck, the medal resting 
on the breast. 

The army-prize will be worn on all full-dress occasions, on 
orderly duty, and when attending the pay-table. 

The army prize, when awarded, belongs to the soldier, who 
may, however, be deprived of wearing it, by the sentence of a 
general court-martial. 

On one side of the medal will be engraved the grade, name, 
company, and regiment of the soldier ; on the other side will 
be engraved. Army Target Prize for IS — . (See Plate 8.) 

The army prizeman will wear both his army and regimental 
prizes. 

The name, company, and regiment of this man to be pub- 
lished in orders from the headquarters of the army, and a 
copy forwarded, with the army prize, to his commanding 
officer, to be given to him by the inspector-general, if present; 
otherwise, by his commanding officer on parade. This man is 
to be determined as follows : 

Regimental commanders will forward to the headquarters 
of the army the name, company, and record of the firing of 
the regimental prizeman. Should two regimental prizemen 
have equal strings, the same course will be pursued as deter- 
mining the regimental prizeman under similar circumstances, 
except that the new record of firing will be forwarded direct 
to the headquarters of the army by the commanding officer of 
the post. 

N. B. — The regimental prizem.in will wear the regimental prize, and 
turn in to his captain the company prize. 

4^^ 



42 TARGET PRACTICE. 



stadia. 

(See Plate 7.) 

The stadia is an instrument used for estimating distances. 
It is a piece of copper, or other material, witli an isosceles 
triangle cut out of it. The upper and lower sides are gradu- 
ated, and a slide works from left to right. The base of the 
opening is perpendicular to the sides of the instrument, and 
represents the apparent height of a man at a given distance, 
when the instrument is held horizontally at a certain distance 
from the eye. 

In the opening ABC, A B, the base, when held vertically 
and at a distance — say 26 inches — from the eye, represents 
the apparent height of a foot-soldier with his cap on, at say 
150 yards. 

In order that the instrument shall always be used at the 
same distance from the eye, a string or chain is attached to 
the slide. The graduation of the sides of the instrument is 
made by observation or by calculation^ assuming the average 
height of an infantry-soldier to be a certain number of inches. 

To use the instrument, hold the knot at the end of the 
string, or the ball of the chain, between the teeth, stretch the 
string or chain by extending the arm, keeping the base A B 
of the opening vertical : pass the instrument from right to 
left across the field of sight, until the top of the cap and feet 
of the man appear to graze the sides C A and C B respectively. 
Move the slide to the point of apparent coincidence, and take 
the reading above, or below, as the case may be. This will 
give the distance. 

The upper side of the instrument is graduated to determine 
the distance of foot-soldiers ; the other, the distance of cavalry. 
In the latter case, we must regard the top of the trooper's cap 
and his horse's feet. 



TARGET PRACTICE. 43 



Each company -will be furnished with a blankbook, two 
quires folio cap, in which the record of firing will be kept 
according to Forms I., II., and III. These books will be left 
at the post-adjutant's office for the inspection of the command- 
ing officers after each firing, or at the end of the week, as that 
officer may direct. 

Record -books will be furnished by the Quartermaster's De- 
partment, on requisitions made by commanders of companies. 



S^he j[irin() of 6iiard.^i. 

Immediately after the guard marches off, it will fire at a 
target under the supervision of the officer of the guard, or, in 
his absence, the officer of the day, conforming to the prin- 
ciples laid down in this system. 

For three months in the year, commencing on the 1st of 
January, guards will fire at the distances 150 and 225 yards. 

For three months at '' " 250 '' 300 '' 

u a a u u a 305 a 350 ^^ 

u a (c a u u 40O ^^ 450 '' 

When the ranges laid down above cannot be obtained, they 
will be approximated to as nearly as possible. 

The size of the targets fired at from the several distances 
given above will be the same as prescribed for the same dis- 
tances in Lesson II. 

When practicable, the best shot will be credited with a 
tour of police or fatigue duty. 

In this firing, the string will be measured from the centre of 
the ball-hole to the centre of the intersection of the horizontal 
and vertical stripes. Equal strings will be decided by the 
men firino; a second shot. 



FORM I. 

Record of the Firing of Compaiii/ ^^ A/' 1st Regiment of Infantry^ 1858. 




a 


'001 0^ nv\ JO ot;bh 


oo 


r:^ O to oo lO OO -^ 
rH 00 O CN Oq CM T-H 

i>^ i>^ csi -^ t-^ ^* r-^ 

o <:c> CO <X) o CO o 


o 


•psJU sil^q JO -ox 


oo 


s- _ 'TJH oo ^ ^ ■ 
^ ^ C<J (M ^ >- -• 


o 

CM 


•s^lHJO-OKmoi 




<X5 oi o OO ci 00 CO 

r-l rH rH rH I— 1 r-H pH 


o 


i 'O 

J-. 

i >. 

\ s. 

1 '* 


•s;iH 


"^ 


(M CO G<1 C<l CO CM T— 1 


tH 


*9;T3a 


So 


^ ^ ^ " t^ ^ ^ 


^ 


CO 


•s^IH 


Tti 


CM C^ CM rH (M CM CO 


■Jf 


•8^Ba 


go 




- 


o 

1 ^ 


•s;iH 


(M 


CO CM CO CO CM CO r-i 


CO 


•a:^i}(I 


gco 


X- s. s- -5 ^ V. s. 
^ ^ ^ Tf "* ^ "^ 


- 


' 'P 
O 


•s^IH 


CO 


CM CO (M C^l CO CO CO 


CM 


•8;^a 


?i 




- 


1 1 


•s;iH 


-=^ 


CM CM CO CO CM CM CO 


r-^ 


•8i«a 


3^ 


CM 


- 




•S41II 


CO 


Ca CO CO CO CO CO CM 


¥z 


•9:^T}a 






- 


1 

>> 
1 


•siIH 


-=^ 


CO '^ ^ Ttl Tj^ CO CO 


CO 


'^V^d 




■2 :S 

T-H rH 


- 


•epi3j{) 


1st 

Sergt. 
4tli 


^ !> V, V. V. ^ V. 

^ :s 

ui Ph 


- 


ill 


1 

1 

< 


1 1 1 1 1 1 i 

PP^K'-SH^^P^ 

1 1 1 1 1 M 


- 


d 

;2; 


rH 


CM CO 'TtH O CO i>- CO 


C-1 








44 





00 

GC' 

1-H 

^. 
%^ 

Si "vs 

S " - 

hH ;^ 

§1 

i 

1 












o 
CI 

CO 


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GO 

QO 


CO 


CO CO ^ ir- o -^ 
^ CO 1-^ O CX) r-< 

r-^* CO r-^ CO t^ c^i 

t^ QO O lO O OO 


CO 
CO 

QO 


•pajg siiBq JO -0^ 


QO 
C<1 


- 


^ OO -Tt^ ^ ^ ^ 

- cv> cq ^ - - 




•s^IH JO -ox IB^ox 1 


O 
^ 


1—1 


O O O lO O CO 
(M (>4 r— i i-H 1-H C<l 


^ 

r^ 




•SJIH 


Tf 


T— i 


(M CO Ol ^1 C<1 CO 


cq 


1 




- 




- 


i 


•eiFII 1 


CO 


(M 


CO v+ r-l r-H (>T CO 


1—1 


% 
CO 


•aj«a 


May 
16th 


- 


:: ^ :::::: :: 


^ 


T 

1 ^ 


•8^111 


<N 


<M 


CO CO ri n CO CO 


CO 


1 


[May 

15th 


- 




- 


u 

e 


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''^ 


^ 


CO M C^l (M (M ^ 


(M 


1 


S2 


- 




1—1 


'I 
! 2. 


•B1IH 


rf 


I— 1 


Tj^ -^ <M CO CO CO 


^ 


1 

1 


May 
12th 


- 




- 


i 

>> 


•»^IH 


T^ 


(N 


CO ^ Tt^ CO CO -* 


cq 


•e^BQ 


S3 


^ 


^ ::: ^ ^ rH :i 

1-H 


- 


1 


'^\\\ 


-^ 


CO 


(M * CO (M xt^ CO 


TJH 


•e;«a 


1- 

goo 


- 




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i ! 


2d 

Sergt. 


-6 


^ i^.g ^ ^ :: - 


- 


PI 


1 

1 

. < 


1— i 
1 


1 1 1 1 1 1 


1 
1 


1 « 


i-H 


C<1 


CO '^ O CO t^ oo 








45 







oo 
oo 

f 

^^'^ 

l-H ^ 

V- 

0^ 
















•OOIo:^ s^iqjooT^BH 


rH 

to 

GO 


GO 


t— t^ l-H T-H rH oo 
lO lO Jt^ t^ t- (M 

GO GO O O O ^ 

Jt- Jl- c:d CD CO O 


oo 
1:^ 




•p8jy siiBq JO -0^ 


00 


- 




GO 


•s^IHJO-ONmox 






cq (M t^ t^ Jr- oo 

(M Cq T-H r-i T-H l-H 




s 


•s^IH 


CO 


(M 


c^q -TtH CO (M cq (M 


^ 


•9;«a 




- 


^ >- rH -- ->- -- 
^ ^ CO " "• " 


- 


>> 


•^^IH 


(M 


CO 


Tj^ (M l-H Cq CM (M 


CO 


•8;^a 




- 


5 

^ oo c: ^ :: ::; 
cq 


- 




•s;iH 


CO 


Tt^ 


CO CO (M Cq (M CO 


Ol 


•a^ija 




^ 




- 


>i 


•s;iH 


Tt< 


CO 


(M T^fH CO (M Cq (M 


(M 


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1^ (M 


- 




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•s^TH 


^ 


(M 


^ ^ (N (M (M (M 


CO 


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- 


(M V, V. V. ,^ S^ 

CM ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ 


- 


i 

>5 


•s^TH 


Ttl 


^ 


CO Cq CO CO Thi CO 


^ 


•e^iea 


1^ C<3 


- 


^ " ^ " cq " 


- 


>> 

1 


•s:HH 


^ 


^ 


r:^^ CO CO '^ CO TjH 


^ 


•8:>«a 




:: 




N« 


•9pi3J£) 


CO <u CM o je 


e^.> - ^ ^ ^ 

^ ^ ^ V. N- S. 

OPh 


- 




1 


i 


III I 


1 

o 

(M 


1 


T-H 


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CO ^ >0 CO 1:^ oo 


46 



•^ 



"^ 



V 



O0lo»s^nijoop«a 



DO OC !>• ^^t — ; ^^ 

5 c<i ^ -r^ r: fc ^1 re 






•pgjg sn^ ;o -ox 



DC M X M 
>- ^ C^l :^ M - C 



'^!H JO 'OX T^ox ; 



urs t^TtriMCiXO 



JC 


•?2TH 


— 


o — ri O C: o o 






^ 




•^^a 






"3 
X 




- 




•sitH| 


1 

1 « 


C: O — — C: — — ^ 






^ 


5 


•aj«a 










- ; 


X 


*^1!H 


•— » 


r-< 1-1 rH O '-• O ^ 






^ 


>» 


1 


1 §1 

1 "-s — 








:: I 




•e^ni 


1 - 


O ^ * ^ ^ ^ ^ 






C^l 






'^m 



Ol rHM(MCC*^-Hf^ 



»— -M rc -t- u': ->^ r^ X 



•H 


•«»!H 


CO 


r-i M (7^ f-t M ,-^ 1-t 


— 


1 


•*)«a 


^30 




- 









1 


Jun. 
4th 




■^ ^ "^ ^ uC ^ ^ 


•5 


- 


• 
1 






*»ifh' 


CO 




CI CO -M CO Ol Ol ^1 




M 






1 


1^ 




X >-.->->.>. CO 


•5 


- 


s 






-^IIH j 


CO 




M -?■ r: r: ro c^ ^t 




M 






-^VKl 












•»p«JO 




"? 


f -^ ^ :: ^ ^ ^ 




- 


1 




< 


I 

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1 i 

1 
< 




1 M 1 1 1 1 




J 
1 



48 



TARGET PRACTICE. 



FORM II. 

Firing as Skirmishers. 



1st Drill, July 1,1858. 


2d Drill, July 3, 1858. 


3d Drill, July 6, 1858. 


Distance from which 


Distance from which 


Distance from which 


line of skirmishers 


line of skirmishers 


line of skirmishers 


commenced firing: 


commenced firing ; 


commenced firing : 


350 yards. 


600 yards. 


800 yards. 


No. 


No. 


No. 


Ratio 


No. 


No. 


No. 


Ratio 


No. 


No. 


No. 


Ratio 


of 


of 


of 


per 


of 


of 


of 


per 


of 


of 


of 


per 


men. 


Balls 


Balls 


100. 


men. 


Balls 


Balls 


100. 


men. 


Balls 


Balls 


100. 




fired. 


hit. 






fired. 


hit. 






fired. 


hit. 




84 840 1 210 


25 


84 


840 


168 


20 


84 |840|105|12.5 



FOEM III. 

Firing hy File, hy Company or Rank, and hy Platoon. 



Species of Firing. 


Date. 


Distance. 


No. 
of 
men. 


No. 

of 
Balls 
fired. 


No. 

of 

Balls 

hit. 


Eatlo 
per 
100. 


By File 


July 15 


300 yds. 

a 
cc 


84 

CC 
CC 


504 

168 

168 

840 


290 

90 
100 

480 


57.54 

53.57 
59.52 

57.14 


By Rank or Com- 
■nanv 


v^^j 

Bv Platoon 


Total 








By File 


July 17 


400 yds. 

cc 
cc 


81 

cc 
cc 


486 

162 
162 

810 


215 

61 

54 

330 


44.24 

37.65 
33.33 

40.74 


By Rank or Com- 
■nanv 


y^^^j 

Bv Platoon 


Total 




By File 


July 18 

(C 


500 yds. 

cc 
cc 


79 

(I 

a 


474 

158 
158 

790 


161 

47 
36 

244 


33.97 

29.75 

22.78 
30.89 


By Rank or Corn- 
Dan v 


B V Platoon 


Total.: ;... 



J 



.- Ti>t-